Sex dating in Confluence

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Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. This study replicates and extends the confluence model by including alcohol at multiple levels. The of sexually aggressive acts that participants committed after consuming alcohol and the of sexually aggressive acts participants committed when sober were separately calculated so that the predictors of each could be distinguished. Participants were men who completed a survey that included measures that assessed the key components of the confluence model. of path analyses indicated that the expanded model fit the data well, with both general and situational measures of alcohol use predicting frequency of sexual assault when drinking alcohol.

These findings highlight the importance of developing universal and targeted prevention programs for young men.

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Sexual assault is a prevalent problem in the United States. At least half of all sexual assaults involve alcohol use Testa, This paper describes a study which added alcohol to the confluence model. As noted above, the confluence model Malamuth et al. The impersonal sex pathway is characterized by emotional detachment within sexual relationships Malamuth et al. Adolescent delinquency and associating with delinquent peers are posited to encourage impersonal sexual behavior because they interfere with the development of critical skills such as delayed gratification and prosocial negotiation tactics.

Further, Malamuth et al. Men who have sex at earlier ages and who have numerous sexual partners without emotional commitment are expected to be more likely to sexually assault women for two reasons. First, some men enjoy sex purely for the conquest and are willing to use whatever means necessary to obtain that sexual gratification Kanin, ; Malamuth et al. These men often have friends who encourage the discussion of sexual conquests, thus reinforcing the need for numerous sexual experiences.

The more frequently men date women and are alone with them in potential sexual situations, the more occasions they have to force sex. Many researchers have found that as compared to men who have not committed sexual assault, sexually aggressive men initiated sex at an earlier age and had more dating and consensual sexual partners Abbey et al. The second pathway of the confluence model, hostile masculinity, focuses on sexual assault from a power perspective Malamuth et al.

Witnessing or experiencing abuse as and associating with delinquent peers create a social environment which teaches men to treat women as objects rather than equals. Although impersonal sex and hostile masculinity are hypothesized to independently predict sexual assault perpetration, a key component of the confluence model is that these pathways interact such that men high on both hostile masculinity and impersonal sex report the highest levels of sexual assault. Thus, hostile masculinity and impersonal sex work together synergistically to predict sexual aggression.

Malamuth has made modest modifications to the confluence model over the years. For example, the initial model included social isolation; however it was not empirically supported and has not been retained Malamuth et al. Furthermore, although constructs such as witnessing or experiencing violence in childhood and adolescent delinquency are theorized to be causally prior to the development of impersonal sexual behavior and hostile masculinity, most examinations of the model have been cross—sectional see Malamuth et al.

The precise indicators used to assess each of the primary concepts have varied across studies, suggesting that the constructs of impersonal sex and hostile masculinity are robust. For example, Malamuth et al. In contrast, Malamuth et al. For example, Wheeler et al. Sex dating in Confluence authors found that both hostile masculinity and impersonal sex ificantly predicted the of sexual assaults perpetrated; additionally, the interaction Cbetween impersonal sex and hostile masculinity was ificant.

In a second model, these authors included empathy as a predictor variable. Although there was no evidence of a main effect of empathy, there was a ificant three—way interaction with hostile masculinity and impersonal sex. Empathy had a buffering effect such that for men who scored above the median on hostile masculinity and impersonal sex, higher levels of empathy were associated with lower levels of sexual aggression.

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With all three indicators included, the model ed for The characteristics and consequences of assaults that involve alcohol are often different from assaults that do not involve alcohol. The effects of alcohol on sexual behavior have been delineated several ways Cooper, ; Testa, The first level at which alcohol potentially influences sexually assaultive behavior is the global, associational level. Many researchers have reported that perpetrators are more likely to drink heavily and to be problem Sex dating in Confluence than nonperpetrators Abbey et al.

Individuals who drink frequently or heavily do not necessarily drink alcohol in the types of situations in which sexual assault typically occurs. Thus, the second level at which alcohol contributes to sexually assaultive behavior is situational, which is defined as alcohol consumption in the types of situations in which sexual assault frequently occurs.

Sexual assault typically occurs in dating and party situations in which alcohol consumption is common Abbey, ; Testa, The knowledge that many perpetrators drink heavily in the types of situations in which sexual assault typically occurs does not demonstrate that these perpetrators were intoxicated when they committed sexual assault. The third level of association is the event level. For example, Muehlenhard and Linton surveyed male college students who reported on two dates: one that involved some type of forced sex and one that did not.

Men were more likely to commit sexual assault on heavy drinking dates. Alcohol is not a major concept in the confluence model. Malamuth et al. In order to directly assess Sex dating in Confluence sexual assaults, sexual aggression was divided into two components: the of sexually aggressive acts in which the perpetrator consumed alcohol and the of sexually aggressive acts in which the perpetrator did not consume alcohol.

Theoretical Model Extending Malamuth et al. As described in the Method section, the dataset used in this study was not developed to assess the confluence model. However, most of the concepts that are central to the model were available. The only exception was that there was no measure of childhood exposure to violence. We expected to replicate the basic findings of the confluence model. Thus, it was hypothesized that delinquency would be positively related to impersonal sex and hostile masculinity, which in turn were hypothesized to be positively related to the frequency of perpetrating sexually aggressive acts, both when intoxicated and when sober.

As described above, alcohol use was hypothesized to predict only intoxicated sexually aggressive acts. Given the cross—sectional nature of the model, the causal flow which it depicts cannot be fully evaluated. In addition to the pathways described above, numerous ificant correlations were hypothesized. We anticipated that delinquency and general drinking behaviors and beliefs would be positively correlated and that impersonal sex would be positively correlated with situational alcohol use and hostile masculinity.

Furthermore, it was hypothesized that the two dependent measures, the of sober sexually aggressive acts and the of intoxicated sexually aggressive acts would be ificantly, negatively correlated. We expected that most men would have a preferred modus operandi and, therefore, perpetrate sexual assault primarily when intoxicated or primarily when sober.

After testing the main effects model, a second model was examined that included the interactions between impersonal sex and hostile masculinity, impersonal sex and situational alcohol use, and hostile masculinity and situational alcohol use. In each case, men who were high on both sets of predictors were hypothesized to commit the highest of sexual assaults.

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The interaction between hostile masculinity and impersonal sex was expected to ificantly predict the of sober sexually aggressive acts and the interactions between situational alcohol use with impersonal sex and hostile masculinity were expected to ificantly predict the of intoxicated sexually aggressive acts.

Participants were men recruited from a large urban university. Due to the requirements of the original study, participants were required to be 21 years of age or older, 1 to drink alcohol, to be single, and to have had heterosexual dating experiences within the last year. Groups of two to five men reported to large classrooms to fill out the self—administered questionnaire.

The experimenter explained the informed consent and answered questions. In order to enhance confidentiality, participants were seated far apart and placed their completed questionnaires in unmarked, sealed envelopes. These questions assessed delinquent behaviors that had occurred before the participant was 18 years old.

Tremblay et al. Alcohol expectancies were assessed with a measure developed by Abbey, McAuslan, Ross, and Zawacki to assess alcohol expectancies relevant to sexual assault. Participants were asked 28 questions about how alcohol affects them that were deed to assess the domains of aggression, disinhibition, and sexual drive.

Although each of these subdomains are usually evaluated as distinct expectancies Abbey et al. Responses to these two questions were multiplied to form a quantity by frequency measure, which was then winsorized to reduce skew Wilcox, Past impersonal sexual behavior and attitudes were assessed with three measures. First, participants were asked how many sexual partners they had in their lifetime Abbey et al.

Second, participants were also asked the approximate of dates they expect to go on with a woman before they engage in sexual intercourse. This variable was winsorized to reduce skew Wilcox, and then reverse scored so that a higher score indicated more impersonal sexual behavior. Participants were asked whether sex without love is okay and whether or not they enjoy casual sex with different partners.

Responses were made on a 7—point Likert scale with options ranging from strongly disagree 1 to strongly agree 7. Three measures were used to assess the hostile masculinity concept: adversarial sexual beliefs, hostility toward women, and sexual dominance. This measure has demonstrated good internal consistency reliability Burt, and numerous researchers have found that it discriminates between perpetrators and nonperpetrators Malamuth et al.

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This scale has demonstrated good reliability in past stud ies Malamuth et al. In this study, it had a coefficient alpha of.

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Alcohol use in sexual and dating situations was assessed to measure situational alcohol use Abbey et al. Participants were asked how often they drank alcohol in sexual situations and how much alcohol they drank in these situations. These two items were multiplied to form an index of alcohol consumption in sexual situations.

In a parallel manner, participants were asked how often they drank alcohol in dating situations and how much alcohol they drank in these situations. Similarly, these two items were also multiplied together to form an index of alcohol consumption during dating situations. The SES uses behaviorally—specific questions to assess the perpetration of unwanted sexual experiences since the age of The alpha for the original measure was. The alpha for this modified measure of the SES was. Added items asked about sexual experiences when the woman was unable to consent because she had passed out and when the man used verbally coercive tactics such as guilt or threats to end the relationship.

Directly following each SES question, participants were asked several questions that were not included in the original version of the SES, including if they had consumed alcohol. The instructions asked participants who had committed a specific type of forced sex more than once to answer in terms of the incident they remembered best. Using this information, two dependent variables were created. The first was the sum of the of sexually aggressive acts perpetrated when drinking alcohol. The second was the sum of the of sexually aggressive acts perpetrated when they were not drinking alcohol.

The distribution for the of sober sexually aggressive acts ranging from 0 to 10 was slightly skewed; therefore, it was winsorized. Path analysis in Lisrel 8. A full structural equation model that included the measurement model was not evaluated because the majority of the concepts were made up of only one or two indicators MacCallum, Therefore, the model that was evaluated was a path analysis conducted within a structural equation modeling framework. Constructs were formed by transforming each scale score into a z—score so that they could be meaningfully combined to create composite variables.

The z—score for delinquency was used to indicate the delinquency construct. The z—scores for usual drinking and alcohol expectancies were added and divided by two to create the general drinking behaviors and beliefs construct. The z—scores for of sex partners, when participants expected to engage in sexual intercourse, and casual sexual attitudes were added and divided by three to create the impersonal sex construct.

The z—scores for adversarial sexual beliefs, hostility to ward women, and sexual dominance were added and divided by three to create the hostile masculinity construct. The z—scores for drinking during sex and drinking during dates were added and divided by two to create the situational alcohol use construct. Model fit was evaluated using numerous criteria.

Among perpetrators,

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